Strengths and Weaknesses of Waterfall Approach for Software Development

One of the most famous and widely used approaches for software development is the waterfall model. Waterfall approach is an old technique that has been in use for quite some time, but in modern times agile approach is gaining prominence.

Waterfall approach, as is evident from the name, refers to a systematic approach where one step comes after the other. It cannot go the other way round. The process works like the waterfall effect that flows in one direction, which is from up to down.

In this process the life cycle of the development process is predetermined. All the steps are defined before the start of the project. The approach is predictive, where the team is well aware of the order of each step and therefore works accordingly. It starts from the requirement analysis, the design phase and then proceeds on to the implementation, testing and the maintenance phases.

The waterfall approach can be quite beneficial for those who are quite clear on their requirements. A planned approach works for them because they want fixed processes and budget. Where fixed processes are beneficial, at the same time they can be inconvenient at times. In cases where the client is not clear on the requirements and finds in the middle of the project that he/she wants to change course, this approach can prove to be quite problematic.

Another point of the waterfall approach is that the requirement analysis and design of architectural structure can consume a lot of time. Extensive research is done initially as the next phases depend completely on the planning strategy. However, the good thing is that everything is thoroughly worked out and each aspect is studied beforehand. The developers in such cases know what is expected of them.

A waterfall approach works in a systematic order, with one step following the other and the testing phase comes in the end. If there are any big problems encountered in the testing phase, it means a long process to make the amends. The process can consume extra time and money.

We cannot conclude that one approach is better than the other, as every method would have its own strengths and weaknesses. The determination of success for each method depends on how it is being used and whether the approach suits the scope of work being undertaken. While one approach may be suitable for a particular project, it might become totally useless under different circumstances. For example, some believe that agile methods are not well suited for offshore development, as they require a closer contact and communication that is not possible in an offshore project.

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Application Software in Business Activities

Business is any activity undertaken by an individual or a group of person with an intention to make profits. A business engages in various activities like planning of resource, scheduling of activities, coordinating and other managerial activities. All these have to be completed in time in order to generate maximum profit in the production. Prospective entrepreneurs should adhere to these objectives.

Much of business time is put waste when it handles its tasks through the use manual system. This necessitates to the use of the software, an automated means which is efficient-oriented. Examples of the software in business application include the Decision Support System, Transaction Processing system and Management Information System. They can be largely used in resource planning where an enterprise defines way to achievement.

Collaborative resource planning software provides the business people with adequate and reliable information. Marketing information and bureaucracy of the enterprise is unambiguous. Previous methods that contributed to the failures can be fully noted. This enables the enterprise to opt to use other successful means in use elsewhere. An efficient resource planning software helps you to generate and retrieve information about resource allocation in form of detailed niche reports. As a result, time as a resource is much conserved and can be used in other productive areas.

Boundaries are clearing defined by the software. The business is expected to work towards the laid limits by the legal authority, operational, technical, economic and social feasibility. Beyond the predetermined extents, no productive operation can be encountered.

Scheduling of activities is best in practice via use of the software. The order and the way in which operation is accurately developed by use of the program, this results into application of qualitative business techniques, where there is matching of skills and jobs to done. The enterprise standards of performance are maintained. Cases of underemployment or over employment are eradicated. In turn, employees’ are encouraged to exercise creativity and innovation in right of their propelling positions, and hence works towards achievement of objectives of the business.

Planning software makes efficient forecasting of resources. Unknown future is determined prior. Situations like inflation, competition increases government provision of subsidies and technological changes can be adequately known. The fallout is to relay strategies to deal with upcoming challenging matters.

Top echelons (management) benefits significantly in software application. Executives’ unstructured decisions are accurately established. They rapidly derive information from the software. For example, decisions on where to establish a new firm or a branch, whether there is funds to finance multiple projects.

Management need to store information in reliable source (in software). This is used for swift evaluation of business performance. They can decide to reward the best performing employees based on the results retrieved from the software. This motivates employees to work zeal and confidence. Their individuals objectives are harmonized to entire business objectives.

Managers use software to control the progress of activities. Those deviating from the predetermined plans can be precisely noted. Management can also rely on software for marketing of its products. Research on business competition like advertisement and efficient market penetration means is done in detail.

In conclusion, software suitable for effective planning of the business operations, scheduling of activities and other managerial activities. Without use of software, a business is considered to be running behind technology and operating at obsolete level.

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Examples Of Spyware And What They Are

Spyware is a general term used to describe software that performs certain behaviors such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration of your computer, generally without appropriately obtaining your consent first.

Spyware is often associated with software that displays advertisements (called adware) or software that tracks personal or sensitive information.

That does not mean all software that provides ads or tracks your online activities is bad. For example, you might sign up for a free music service, but you “pay” for the service by agreeing to receive targeted ads. If you understand the terms and agree to them, you may have decided that it is a fair tradeoff. You might also agree to let the company track your online activities to determine which ads to show you.

Other kinds of Spyware make changes to your computer that can be annoying and can cause your computer slow down or crash.

These programs can change your Web browsers home page or search page, or add additional components to your browser you don’t need or want. These programs also make it very difficult for you to change your settings back to the way you originally had them.

The key in all cases is whether or not you (or someone who uses your computer) understand what the software will do and have agreed to install the software on your computer.

There are a number of ways Spyware or other unwanted software can get on your computer. A common trick is to covertly install the software during the installation of other software you want such as a music or video file sharing program.

Any software that covertly gathers user information through the user’s Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually for advertising purposes. Spyware applications are typically bundled as a hidden component of freeware or shareware programs that can be downloaded from the Internet; however, it should be noted that the majority of shareware and freeware applications do not come with SpyWare. Once installed, the Spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers

Aside from the questions of ethics and privacy, SpyWare steals from the user by using the computer’s memory resources and also by eating bandwidth as it sends information back to the spy ware’s home base via the user’s Internet connection. Because SpyWare is using memory and system resources, the applications running in the background can lead to system crashes or general system instability.

Because SpyWare exists as independent executable programs, they have the ability to monitor keystrokes, scan files on the hard drive, snoop other applications, such as chat programs or word processors, install other SpyWare programs, read cookies, change the default home page on the Web browser, consistently relaying this information back to the SpyWare author who will either use it for advertising/marketing purposes or sell the information to another party.

Licensing agreements that accompany software downloads sometimes warn the user that a SpyWare program will be installed along with the requested software, but the licensing agreements may not always be read completely because the notice of a SpyWare installation is often couched in obtuse, hard-to-read legal disclaimers.

Examples of SpyWare

These common SpyWare programs illustrate the diversity of behaviors found in these attacks. Note that as with computer viruses, researchers give names to SpyWare programs which may not be used by their creators. Programs may be grouped into “families” based not on shared program code, but on common behaviors, or by “following the money” of apparent financial or business connections. For instance, a number of the SpyWare programs distributed by Claria are collectively known as “Gator”. Likewise, programs which are frequently installed together may be described as parts of the same SpyWare package, even if they function separately.

o CoolWebSearch, a group of programs, takes advantage of Internet Explorer vulnerabilities. The package directs traffic to advertisements on Web sites including coolwebsearch.com. It displays pop-up ads, rewrites search engine results, and alters the infected computer’s hosts file to direct DNS lookups to these sites.

o Internet Optimizer, also known as DyFuCa, redirects Internet Explorer error pages to advertising. When users follow a broken link or enter an erroneous URL, they see a page of advertisements. However, because password-protected Web sites (HTTP Basic authentication) use the same mechanism as HTTP errors, Internet Optimizer makes it impossible for the user to access password-protected sites.

o Zango (formerly 180 Solutions) transmits detailed information to advertisers about the Web sites which users visit. It also alters HTTP requests for affiliate advertisements linked from a Web site, so that the advertisements make unearned profit for the 180 Solutions Company. It opens pop-up ads that cover over the Web sites of competing companies.

o HuntBar, aka WinTools or Adware,WebSearch was installed by an ActiveX drive-by download at affiliate Web sites, or by advertisements displayed by other SpyWare programs-an example of how SpyWare can install more SpyWare. These programs add toolbars to IE, track aggregate browsing behavior, redirect affiliate references, and display advertisements.

oZlob Trojan or just Zlob, Downloads itself to your computer via ActiveX codec and reports information back to Control Server. Some information can be as your search history, the Websites you visited, and even Key Strokes.

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How Useful is CAD Software to Engineers and Architects?

The emergence of advanced technology has made people today dependent on machines. Using computers and software, for example, is a very common illustration of this. Computer experts are coming up with more and more software to make more and more jobs easier.

A more specific illustration of this can be found in the modern approach towards engineering and architecture. These days, professionals in these fields use CAD computer software which is a program that allows them to create designs faster, easier and with more accurate measurements. Aside from the convenience that CAD software brings, it also helps put architects and engineers ahead of their competitors. CAD, which can render designs that are two-dimensional or three dimensional, stands for Computer Aided Design and has been in use since 1982.

So how does CAD computer software work? And what does it do exactly to help engineers and architects? The program is actually multifaceted in the sense that there are many ways it can help. To make CAD work will require, however, a careful study of its features and the many ways it can be used. It is rather a complex yet flexible and highly functional program.

This article will not be enough to discuss the various ways that CAD works but pinpointing its advantages could give some very good ideas. One great advantage of CAD computer software is its easy-to-use tools in the creation and alteration of designs. Obviously, this is so much better than the old fashioned way of using a pencil and eraser directly on paper. This method of designing is obviously so much easier and engineers and architects simply have more time to finish other tasks. In other words, high productivity is going to be the main end result of using CAD.

Before the design is actually printed on paper, CAD also allows both the design professional and the client to preview what has been finished so far. Any alterations can be made simply by manipulating the drawing through the use of the software. With CAD, it is so much easier to spot errors because the designs can be rendered exactly as they would be in reality. Hence, modifications can be done even before printing, thus, allowing one to save.

With the tough competition that everyone has to face these days, it is wise to take advantage of new technologies that can help put them ahead in the race. While traditional methods hold a significant part in the history of design, advanced tools such as CAD software should only be welcomed as man’s way of furthering development in a field of expertise that he himself has created long ago.

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Understanding the Significance of Computer Hardware

We are living in an age that is highly influenced by technology. Most of the activities we need to do now are automatic or computerized. Of all the technological developments achieved in the recent past, one significant tool that got developed and which will certainly keep influencing our lives is the computer. You would agree that computers play a very basic role in our daily life, just like the television and the cell phone. We are already at a stage where life will be difficult without a computer. That makes it important to understand the way a computer works, and then be informed of what we should do if it stops working. The most important part of any computer is its hardware, in the absence of which it just can not function.

If you are really keen to assess what has gone wrong with your computer when it stops working, you should understand the working and constituents of its hardware. You should especially have solid knowledge about the computer hardware when you want to undertake its troubleshooting on your own. One important part of the hardware is the RAM memory of any computer. For running any program or application, any computer needs a RAM memory. Other than that, if the computer has a RAM with specifications that are not compatible with the programs it is expected to run, its operation will be slowed down and it would almost crawl. When choosing a computer, you need to ensure that its hardware is not outdated, otherwise you'll have to upgrade it in order to be able to use the intended program.

You must take certain basic precautions while handling the hardware of computers. The most essential precaution is to ensure that the power supply to your computer is switched off, else it could cause an electric shock. Then, before you touch any part within the computer, ensure that you are not carrying any electric charge by connecting to a grounded piece of metal or you may procure an anti-static mat or wrist band available in the market. While inspecting the hardware components, you should look for broken or damaged component, as these are most likely the reasons for the computer malfunction. If a component does not fit in the slot, you are probably trying to fit it in the incorrect slot.

Once you know the hardware employed in your computer and the role it plays in the functionality of your computer, you'll be in a position to undertake its troubleshooting when it malfunctions. Each piece of hardware contributes to the successful function of the computer. To a large extent, the working of a computer depends on the quality of its hardware, making it imperative to keep it in good condition.

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How Are Brains Different From Computers?

Ever wondered how brains are different from computers? This article shows how. Read on to find out.

Brains consist of cells called neurons and they connect with millions of other neurons and information gets transferred across connection gaps called synapses. Inside the cells data are processed which gives rise to an idea, concept or understanding.

Computers are built of hardware chips and the central processing unit (CPU) processes data after receiving them from the other chips. How it processes data conss of several steps but the main outline is that software programs are fed into the CPU and processed. They provide end result information depending on how the programs are furnished with data and what the query is that fed into the system. If some information is asked that is outside the scope of the software programs, the computer gets limited in functioning.

Brains, however, are limitless. From childhood until adulthood, the brain gets more and more developed and mature. It can process unknown data or abstract data as well and provide insights and knowledge.

The brain is more complex than the CPU and therefore, with neurons and synaptic connections, it is possible to process all kinds of information. It uses the five senses: touch, smell, hearing, taste and sight and takes in information and produces knowledge.

On the other hand, the CPU of computers takes in data from the typing of the keyboard and processes it, which is very limited. However, it is only human beings feeding data, writing software programs and making the computer like like a brain although not quite so.

The brain is still more intelligent than the CPU of computers and has yet to train the computer to have like the brain of a human being.

Yes, computers will be able to take over many tasks of human beings but without human beings, they are lifeless because humans have to give life to these computers, operate on them and have regular updating, monitoring and maintenance on them.

Just as a brain needs to rest and relax, computers will also need that from time to time but they can operate longer times than the average brain. While the brain sleeps, the computer can carry on with its duties of processing data and converting them to knowledge and information.

Summing up, although the CPU is sometimes called the brain of the computer, it is actually a misnomer because as I have outlined in this article, the brain is definitely different from the computer in varying ways and the brain has yet to teach the computer to Behave 100% like a brain.

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How Useful is CAD Software to Engineers and Architects?

The emergence of advanced technology has made people today dependent on machines. Using computers and software, for example, is a very common illustration of this. Computer experts are coming up with more and more software to make more and more jobs easier.

A more specific illustration of this can be found in the modern approach towards engineering and architecture. These days, professionals in these fields use CAD computer software which is a program that allows them to create designs faster, easier and with more accurate measurements. Aside from the convenience that CAD software brings, it also helps put architects and engineers ahead of their competitors. CAD, which can render designs that are two-dimensional or three dimensional, stands for Computer Aided Design and has been in use since 1982.

So how does CAD computer software work? And what does it do exactly to help engineers and architects? The program is actually multifaceted in the sense that there are many ways it can help. To make CAD work will require, however, a careful study of its features and the many ways it can be used. It is rather a complex yet flexible and highly functional program.

This article will not be enough to discuss the various ways that CAD works but pinpointing its advantages could give some very good ideas. One great advantage of CAD computer software is its easy-to-use tools in the creation and alteration of designs. Obviously, this is so much better than the old fashioned way of using a pencil and eraser directly on paper. This method of designing is obviously so much easier and engineers and architects simply have more time to finish other tasks. In other words, high productivity is going to be the main end result of using CAD.

Before the design is actually printed on paper, CAD also allows both the design professional and the client to preview what has been finished so far. Any alterations can be made simply by manipulating the drawing through the use of the software. With CAD, it is so much easier to spot errors because the designs can be rendered exactly as they would be in reality. Hence, modifications can be done even before printing, thus, allowing one to save.

With the tough competition that everyone has to face these days, it is wise to take advantage of new technologies that can help put them ahead in the race. While traditional methods hold a significant part in the history of design, advanced tools such as CAD software should only be welcomed as man’s way of furthering development in a field of expertise that he himself has created long ago.

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Benefits of an Android TV Box

The Android TV box is a useful piece of kit that connects to the TV via the HDMI port to offer most of the features of Android. This type of set up is very flexible and easily connects to most TVs with the right port and is a lot cheaper than a smart TV. Here are a few of the benefits of using the Android TV box:

Endless apps

One of the most appreciated benefits is the ability to use and install the endless apps that are now available on the Android operating system. By visiting the Google Play store using the internet connection, it is possible to install the latest apps related to not only multimedia content, but also audio editing applications, games, books, magazines, sending email, or signing into social media accounts, such as Facebook and Twitter.

TV support

By connecting the Android TV box to the TV at home via the internet; It is also possible to connect to other devices in the home, such as those that make use of technologies like Airplay, Miracast, DLNA, or others that function with Android. This makes it very flexible to share various types of multimedia with the TV. For instance, it is possible for an Android compatible tablet or smartphone to interact and control the TV while also giving the option to share files with a laptop or even watch a downloaded series or a movie on the large screen. Overall, this type of setup gives a simple gateway to get the internet on the TV.

Great price

The cost of upgrading a standard TV to benefit from all the possibilities of Android is relatively cheap compared to buying a smart TV. Plus, the combined standard TV and Android TV box can offer a lot more than a standard smart TV.

Regular updates

The Android operating system is updated on a regular basis, which means the latest version of a game, application, or system is always available. Plus, this is usually done automatically so there is no need to keep searching for updates when logged into the app store. This is significantly more convenient than a smart TV which can take a while to receive updates, especially when every brand of TV needs to have its own update created and released.

All in all, the Android TV Box makes it possible to enjoy the connectivity and versatility of Android on a standard TV set up.

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How to Retrieve Deleted Text Messages & Not Go Crazy in the Process

It’s happened to all of us. We’ve deleted a text message only to realize a short while later that we either deleted the wrong message, or we need to retrieve information off one of the deleted text messages. We then frantically search out ways online how to retrieve deleted text messages hoping to find an easy solution. We pour through websites pulling our hair out because we can’t find an easy solution.

Ultimately we walk away dismayed because either we were not able to find any solutions on how to retrieve deleted text messages, or the solutions we found seemed to require so much “detective” work, that the solution itself should be on a an episode of CSI.

Are there really any “easy” ways to retrieve deleted messages?

The good news is that YES, there are a couple options that do exist which enable anyone to easily recover deleted texts, and both are not only very affordable, but both work exactly as advertised.

Before we dig into the solutions, there is one solution that is often discussed, which does not work, although many people do still talk about it.

What does NOT work?

Going to your own phone carrier is not going to be a viable option. Yes, they are required by law to keep records of your communication (SMS, call, etc.), but they are not required to turn over their logs to you, unless requested by a court of law. You cannot call up AT&T, Verizon or Sprint and tell them you want to retrieve a deleted text message from last week because there is something really important within the contents of the message. It just wont work.

The only information AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, or any other cell phone carrier is going to provide you is the number, date, and time of a call or message. You can plead all you want, but they will not be able to do anything, so it’s not worth your time to attempt this approach.

What DOES work?

There are actually two options available for anyone who is looking for information on how to retrieve deleted text messages. These options rank from the “quick and easy” to the more difficult, but also the most effective.

1) Quick & easy method.

The ‘quick & easy method’ is to buy a SIM card reader, often referred to as a SIM card spy device. This device looks like a USB reader, and the way it works is you remove the SIM card out of your phone, and then place the SIM card into the SIM card reader, and then plug the reader into your computer. Using the included software (of the SIM card reader), you’ll be able to immediately retrieve and read deleted text messages. The time frame will vary, based on what new information is overwritten on the SIM card, but you’ll at least be able to retrieve and read the last 15-20 messages and scan through your call history and contacts, even if they were all deleted.

Positives of this approach?

  • Very easy.
  • Enables you to quickly recover deleted messages.
  • Does not require software to be installed prior to the message being deleted.

Negatives of this approach?

  • A bit costly.
  • Limited cell phone support.
  • Does not work on CDMA networks.

2) More difficult, but most effective method.

The more difficult, but most effective method’ is to purchase a cell phone monitoring app that is often used to spy on cheating spouses, monitor teen cell phone use, track cell phone location, and locate missing or stolen cell phones. These apps (often called spy apps or spy phone software) are often used by people who want an easy and convenient way to back up and store all their own personal cell phone data. The reason why this method is fast becoming a popular way to back up their own personal cell phone data is because everything happens automatically. There is no “syncing” required, or any buttons or settings to worry about. Your cell phone data (text messages, call history, etc.) are automatically backed up every single day. This means if you ever delete a text message, and then need to quickly recover it, all you have to do is log onto your account and then in just a few clicks, you’ll have full contents of every message that was either sent or received from your phone. In addition, you’ll get access to all your call logs and contacts.

The reason why this is a more difficult method, is because it requires that you download the software from your cell phone’s web browser and install the application on your phone. Not everyone is comfortable downloading cell phone apps from the internet using their phone’s web browser. However, once you do complete the download, the actual installation is similar to installing an app on your computer. If you are willing to roll the dice and go with this method, you’ll be very happy with the results. It’s essentially a real time person back up solution that requires absolutely ZERO work on your part. Everything is done for you. The only drawback with this approach is that it does require you to install the software BEFORE you delete the text message that you want to retrieve. This means you need to be proactive and install the software ahead of time.

Positives of this approach?

  • Extremely effective.
  • Affordable.
  • Full contents of text messages are retrieved.
  • Large amount of cell phones are supported, including the popular models such as Android, BlackBerry, iPhone, Nokia, and more.

Negatives of this approach?

  • Can be difficult if not familiar with installing cell phone apps.
  • Software must be installed prior to message being deleted.
  • Requires a data connection such as 3G or Edge
  • May increase data fees if a large amount of text messages are sent on a daily basis.

There you go. Now you know how to retrieve deleted text messages using a couple different approaches. The next time someone asks you how to retrieve deleted text messages, you’ll know what options exist, and which one is the best for that particular situation.

Good luck!

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Why Computer Hardware Is Important

In this day and age, it is hard to deny the influence of technology in our lives. We live in an era where pretty much is automated and computerized. And amidst all the technological advancement that humankind has achieved, one important device has been created that will only sure to become more relevant to our lives as technology progresses, the computer. No one can deny that computers are now an essential part of our lives, the same way a cell phone and television does. It is safe to say that in this day and age, having no computer would be an inconvenience. Which is why it is important that we know the way our computer works so that we would be aware of the things that we should do in case it stops working. The hardware of the computer is considered to be the most important because without it, it will simply not work.

Simply put if you know how to handle the hardware of a computer and know each of their function for the unit, then you can easily determine what the problem is in case the unit stops functioning. In order to be familiar with basic computer troubleshooting, then you also need to be familiar with computer hardware. A good example of this is the memory of the computer (RAM). All programs and applications that are ran in a computer needs memory. Without RAM it simply will not function. Aside from that, even if you have a RAM but it does have the specifications to keep up with the programs that are being run, then the operation would have slowed down to a crawl. So when it comes to computer hardware, you have to make sure that it is not obsolete, so you need to upgrade depending on what sort of program that you are usually using.

When handling computer hardware, you have to keep in mind some safety measures so you can manipulate the unit safely. Before opening any computer cases, you have to make sure that the unit is unplugged or you might risk electrocution or shocks. While checking your hardware components, always check for damaged parts because that is most likely the one that is causing problems. When inserting components and parts, you have to remember that if it does not fit, then most likely you are inserting it on the wrong slot. If it does not fit, then do not force it or you will risk breaking the component. Before touching any parts inside the unit, make sure that you discharge yourself first by through a grounded metal object or you can use an anti-static wrist strap or mat which is sold in stores for cheap.

By knowing and analyzing every computer hardware part you will know about its importance and if it ever breaks down then you can perform the proper troubleshooting steps. Every hardware component is important for the computer's operation. The performance of your computer largely depends on how good your hardware is, so be sure that they are always in good working condition.

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